During the 1960s when the slot car craze was in full swing the United States could rightfully be considered the center of the slot car universe, fast forward 50 years and Italy along with Spain can be described as one of the centers of multi-polar slot car world, with flexi and retro racing centered in the United States, Eurosport in Eastern Europe, 1/32 and 1/24 Scale Racing in Italy and Spain with a strong push for composite chassis LMP racing in Germany and 1/32 Scalextric racing in the United Kingdom. The slot car scene is of course is more diverse than that with scale racing taking place in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Flexi racing in Spain but each type of racing has a distinct center of gravity. In this article we will attempt to travel this multi-polar slot car world stopping at various spots to discover the richness that makes up our hobby. Our travels won't be complete without additional input from racers around the world which can be sent to email@example.com.
SlotRaceClub Eindhoven was founded on February 5th, 2009 by Paul van den Hurk and Jeroen den Broeder and currently has around two dozen members who race a variety of classes with a focus on 1/32. Popular classes include: Slot.it Group-C, 1/32 Classics, EC32 (Open), Sideways Group 5 and NSR GT3. The club races on a 6-lane 46 metre Ninco track based upon the Suzuku GP circuit and a 6-lane 55 metre Carrera track. The Ninco track is fitted with the Oxygen Digital System allowing for both analog and digital slot car racing.
SlotRaceClub Eindhoven wanted a new series to race and some suggested they race F1, and this was decided by the club but with a twist. The club would produce the cars that would be raced. Using the white body by AllSlot they designed a 3D chassis that would replace the stock chassis and provide better performance. Team members were selected to paint and assemble the cars that would then be sold to whoever wanted to race. The costs would be a very reasonable 50 Euros.
Slipstream Slotcar Racing in Zwaanshoek, The Netherlands has a 6-lane wooden track as well as a future rally track. Slipstream currently runs about a dozen classes including two that involve the old slot cars from the German Model Railroad company, Fleischmann. Other classes is for VW Buses with small trailers and the well loved Ninco Classics.
Slipstream also takes part in the Techno Challenge by Techport. Techport is the name of the region where the focus is on the energy, offshore, manufacturing and top sector high tech systems & materials sectors. The core of Techport is in the IJmond (The IJmond region consists of the municipalities: Beverwijk, Heemskerk and Velsen), but the focus is on cooperation with all parties in the Metropolitan Region of Amsterdam and North Holland that are active in these sectors. From the Techport region, companies, schools and governments work together to innovate and implement the Technology Pact NH.
The Slot Car Challenge is a program where students collaborate intensively. As a team they face the teams of classmates in an exciting competition with electrically powered slot cars on a model race course. During the Slot Car Challenge, control, patience and performance are central. That only works if all team members do their job well: the focus is on collaborations. The students fulfill the role of team leader, driver, mechanic and job officer. This makes it clear what the students like and what they are good at. They discover their talents, learn to consult, listen and learn to adapt to changing circumstances. The students build the final car, race the car and make a pit stop during the race to change the tires. The team that best shares the tasks and manages the nerves under high stress wins. Especially for boys this is a real challenge. The experience teaches that girls usually go home with the main prize!
X12 Wing Car racers in Holland can travel to Uden and the Mini Racing Team Uden (MRTU) to race their cars on the club's 8-land Blue King, the only king track in The Netherlands. The club also has a Ninco track and a 6-lane 32 metre routed wood flat track suitable for Eurosport and other 1/24 slot cars. The club also organizes a Youth League of racers with the local schools. One of the major series that the club is involved in is the Lowlands Trophy where the competition involves 2-man teams from clubs in Belgium, Germany as well as the Netherlands. The GT12 Cup involves racers from The Netherlands and Germany. Note that most club races are done using the "Dutch" system which does not use qualification for heat assignment but assignment are done randomly by the computer.
While New Zealand no longer has any commercial raceways, it does have a national organization, the New Zealand Slot Car Association and a number of clubs throughout the country. The NZSCA holds several national championships including:
- RTR National Championships
- For 1/32 plastic body/chassis cars that are basically ready-to-run with minor tuning.
- Slot-it Group C
- NSR Classics
- Muscle Car
- 1/32 National Championships - Lexan bodies
- Grp 3 Flexi Chassis
- Grp 2 Open Chassis with FK Motor
- Grp 1 Open Chassis with G12/25 or Open Motor
- 1/24 National Championships - Metal Chassis with various motors
- GTP – High downforce body with long side plates. Open or closed cockpit sports cars.
- LMP – Lower downforce body with short side plates. Open or closed cockpit sports cars.
- Classic and Can Am – Low downforce ‘scale’ body.
- Eurosport – G12 and Open classes
- Wing Cars - G12/15 Motor
- 1/32 RTR Team 12-hr Endurance
- 1/24 Team 12-hr Endurance
One of the premier clubs in New Zealand is the Wellington Slot Car Club located in Porirua about 18 km north of Wellington on the North Island. The club's main track is a 6-lane 54 metre wooden slot car track at 12.5 Volts. This new layout was built between March and April 2012 after the club moved to the Porirua premises from their old Ten Pin Bowling Site in Petone.
The club races both 1/32 and 1/24 scale cars including Wing Cars and Eurosport. The club will play host to both the 1/32 and 1/24 National Championships in 2017.
In 1962 in the heydays of slot car racing the Henderson Miniature Motor Racing Club was founded. The first clubrooms were an old barn in the suburb of Swanson in Auckland. Today the club races on a 6-lane 30.5 metre wooden track as well as a dragstrip. The Christchurch Slot Car Club has a new 4-lane 55.2 metre routed wood track to race on. The Pitlane Slot Car Club in Dunedin, 2360 km south of Christchurch on the East Coast of the South Island focus on 1/32 racing on their 6-lane 32 metre wooden track.
When discussing slot car racing in New Zealand, we would be remiss if we did not mention John Warren, probably one of the best resin body fabricators currently working when he's not teaching school. Most of John's work is from masters provided by diecast, kit, old slot bodies or by clients. Those that wish to purchase a body should contact John directly through his FB account for his latest stock list.
Askar Mini Racing Club has been in existence for 30 years and races BoxStock, Flexi Saloon (ISRA Production 24) and Flexi Sport/GT on a Hasse built 155' Blue King. Askar being relatively close to Sweden finds itself crossing the border often for inter-club racers.
Damstredet Racing in Oslo Norway has five track and a small Formula 1 slot car museum with many of the cars depicting Ronnie Peterson. The club has been going on since 2003
and Damstredet sports team was officially
established (with the local government) on 11 September 2008. When the members are not racing they compete in running including several marathons, definitely not something you would expect from most American slot car racers.
The 2018 Nordic Endurance Championship is scheduled to be held in January at Trondheim, Norway. This event is for 1/24 Scaleauto cars and is rotated between Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. The race last 6 hours and each country can send two teams 3-4 members to compete in the race. As with most Scaleauto races the cars are mostly stock with hand-out tires. All cars will have their motors checked permitting 7230 rpm measured on the rear wheels with no load.
Like Spain, there is no national slot car organization and rules are set either by the sponsoring manufacturer or the local club. Major clubs include GSC - Guimarães Slot Clube, Slot Clube do Porto, GTTeam ART Slot Clube, Open Slot Arrábida 2017/18 and Aeslotclub Slot. Even without a national organization inter club racing takes place in several series. Azislot is another club that races both circuit and rally on a pair of Ninco tracks.
Most racing is focused on 1/32 scale racing on Ninco and Carrera track. Raid and rally racing is very popular in Portugal and slot cars of this type on rally tracks is raced by several clubs. The cars feature suspension, drop arms and four-wheel drives., rally and raid cars on Ninco track. Popular slot car brands raced are Ninco, NSR, Scaleauto, Slot.it, Black Arrow, Arrow Slot and Thunderslot.
Olifer Racing was founded in the late seventies as a slot race team, participating in hundreds of competitions in Portugal and abroad.
Now run by second-generation racers, Olifer is a taking advantage of modern technology with a range of 3D printed slot car chassis and motor mounts, compatible with several brands including Scalextric, Ninco, Fly and Avant Slot
In Russia, a nation that puts a lot of value in math and science slot cars racing is actually an officially sanctioned course of after school study for school age children as "Young Engineers" where they learn how to build cars from scratch using bench top drills, milling machines and lathes to build everything including the chassis, motor, wheels and gears. Fans of the hobby are just not able to convince local schools and government in the US on the benefits of slot cars to teach our youth about technology. In images of slot car races in Russia you are struck by the young age of the competitors. Something you will rarely see in the United States unless it's a birthday party or scouting event. There is a reason for this, all clubs in Russia are operated as a government entity for children under 18. Adults who wish to partake in the hobby must stay more or less under the radar and for any serious competition must travel outside the former Soviet Union. The clubs are managed by an adult instructor that receives a government salary. In St Petersburg there are 7 of thee types of clubs and countless others dot the Russian countryside. The government in Russia has contracted a number of Russian companies like Boild to help build and organize slot car clubs throughout the country.
These building skills will stay with the student for a lifetime and if they choose to stay in the hobby they tend to gravitate to the fastest cars in the hobby which are wing cars and Eurosport. There does not seem to be much of a market for hard body cars with the vast majority following the ISRA rule set with 5 classes being the most popular.
- Eurosport 24
- Eurosport 32
- Formula 1 32
- Production 24
- Production 32
There has also been a Russian National Championship for the last 20 years. Other important races are the White Nights Tournament and the Russia Cup.
Slot racing in South Africa became popular with with the introduction of Scalextric around 1960. A number of 'Scalextric' clubs sprung up all over the country and many leisure and sports clubs also had Scalextric track layouts.
The South African Model Car Association (SAMCA) founded in 1963 is the primary slot car organization in South Africa.
The hobby really took off in a big way when commercial raceways opened. Miniways, which opened in 1966 in Cape Town had three large eight-lane tracks made by American Machine and Foundry (AMF) which at one time was one of America's largest recreational equipment companies that built bowling alleys all over the United States. The tracks were a 155' Blue King, a 110' Orange Monarch and a 90' Black Prince. The raceway also had a vast inventory of cars, controllers and spare parts.
By late 1969 the worldwide slot racing boom was already over and the raceway closed down. Luckily many of the clubs that had started continued to flourish though on a smaller scale. During the 1970s it was not uncommon to have entries of 60 to 80 drivers at a SAMCA national event. The South African National Championship was contested over four rounds, at four different tracks each year, with a driver's best three results counting towards the championship.
Slot racing at national level in South Africa has always been extremely competitive; in order to even things out, drivers were graded into three classes - A, B and C - depending upon ability and experience, with a national title bestowed upon the winner of each of the classes. The SA National Champion title is awarded to the overall winner in Open Class, regardless of driver grading. Currently SAMCA has championships for GT12 with open chassis and Production 32 and 24 using flexi chassis. SAMCA do not at this time have a scale championship though recently there has been some discussion with regards to adding a 1/24 scale series using truer to scale lexan bodies sourced from Ace Hobbies in Australia with possibly a Plafit chassis or something similar powered by a JK Hawk 25 motor.
A few of the clubs that were founded during the 60s are still in operation to this day. The Ecurie Elite Slot Car Club is the oldest established in 1963. The club located in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal has a 6-lane 34 metre wooden track at it's disposal. The East London Slot Car Club (ELSCC) caters to all ages and meets every Thursday to race a variety of model Slot Cars classes on their permanently 6-lane 42 metre wood track. The Cambridge Slot Car Club in Cape Town races scale cars on Tuesday evenings and SAMCA spec on Friday evenings on their 6-lane 43 metre track. Some other popular clubs in South Africa are the Pretoria Model Car Club, the Malmesbury Slot Car Club, Hotslots in Pietermaritzburg and the Port Elizabeth Model Racing Car Club. Many of the clubs that had focused on 1/32 scale have added 1/24 scale classes to their race calendar.
Without a strong national organization Spain looks to the manufacturer or hosting club to provide any rule set with some clubs incorporating German rules. !/32 like most countries in Western Europe out numbers 1/24 in terms of racers, with 1/24 scale activities concentrated in 1/24 Scaleauto GT3 and to a lesser extent Production16 (lexan) and LMP (Metal/Carbon) chassis.
If there is one city that could be called the epicenter for all things slot car racing that city would be Barcelona in Spain with 6 raceways within a 30km radius and the largest slot car shop in the world in Cric Crac. The Basas family also own Scaleauto, build routed slot car tracks as well as run a thriving distribution business, IBB Auto Racing. Barcelona is also the home to Ninco, which seems to be moving away from slot cars and of Scaleauto a leading manufacturer of 1/32 and 1/24 Scale slot cars. It is their 1/24 GT3 cars that are raced in Spain and all over Europe. Scaleauto sponsors huge endurance races with entrants from all over Spain, Holland, Germany, Italy and Finland. The 2017 race has 68 teams comprised of 245 racers for the event.
Located in Igualada, Spain, ICAR Indoor Slot Racing started out as an RC club but has since converted 100% to slot cars with a membership of over two dozen racers the club maintains an active racing schedule on their two large routed tracks. This schedule includes races for Klasse 1 (Formula 1), cars, 1/24 Scaleauto, 1/24 Production16 (Flexi Cars), LeMans Series, GT Pro and Group C Legends.
Another prominent club also in Igualada is Tim Comarca, founded in 2006. The name Tim Comarca actually refers to a region (though none in particular) and not the name of a person. The club has a beautiful Ivan Basas designed, CNC routed wood track and has started to use German rules with one of the most popular series being the GT Pro series but the club also races the "Danish Style" Retro F1 cars as popularized by Niels Elmholt Christensen. Recently the club started racing trucks as introduced by German racer Andy Pregler. Truck racing in Europe is quite a bit different that the NASCAR Truck series in the US with actual trucks being used.
Spain has a number of companies creating after market parts for the slot car hobby but RC manufactures have for the most part stayed away. Technical Racing Products (TRP) an RC specialist has produced a a chassis that will work with Kyosho's 1/28 MiniZ RC cars. The chassis built in Spain is being marketed under their GroupZ label.
Minibólidos Chamartíin is located in Madrid Spain has been in existence for 15 years with four tracks including one of the first BLST tracks in a club setting. The BLST or “Best Lane Slot Track” is a digital slot car track that automatically selects the best racing line.
Built in France by its inventor David Caille these BLST circuits incorporate an anti-collision system, a computerized race management system that allows the car to automatically switch lanes, refueling management with pit stops, safety cars and self-driving "ghost" cars. The club with about 17 active racers compete in a variety of 1/32 and 1/24 scale classes including GT/GTP/LMP, Digital Group C, 1/24 Scaleauto, Group 5, Ninco GT, 1/24 Muscle Cars and Classic Le Mans.
In Madrid there is a 6-land 44 metre track operated by A+ Slot, a club that focuses on 1/24 scale racing using primarily cars from Scaleauto. On May 2017 the club held a 5-hour enduro racing these cars.
A new track inaugurated on the 17th of June 2017 is said to be the largest track in Spain. The 6-lane track at the Center de Modelisme de Les Franqueses located in Barcelona is more than 60 metres with a main straight of 13 metres. The club originally focused on RC Cars but in 2004 that focus switched to slot cars. The club with more than 100 members races many different categories including 1/32-1/24 Rally; 1/32 GT, LMP, Classics, Trucks, 1/24 GT Scaleauto , Classics, Group C and 1/28 Mini Z. For Raid and Andros ice racing the club uses flour to simulate the real conditions of snow or desert sand.
In Sweden there is a sister organization to the Danish DMRU called Swedish Slot Racing Association SVESLOT, formed on 1 December 2002 to cover slot car racing or miniracing as it is called in Sweden. Traditionally the Danes have raced a lot with the Swedes, especially the clubs that are just a few miles from Sweden.
Races are also held at regular intervals between clubs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany.
Sveslot organizes a number of series including:
Serie Öst 2017
Sveslot also supports scale racing with the BCC and the Scaleauto Cup. The rule sets currently used include Slot-Z, Scandinavian Slot Classic (SCC), Scaleauto and the Scaleauto Nordic Championships which was held in Sweden in 2015 and scheduled for Norway in 2018.
Some prominent clubs include the Malmo Slot Racing Club which will host the North European Championship and the Scandinavian Masters. The track hosted the ISRA Worlds 2012. Önneköps MRK is one of Sweden's oldest yet active slot racing clubs having been founded in 1963. Unfortunately the club is no longer active and the title has gone over to Go-69.
The GO-69 in Partille, Sweden has as its name the abbreviation of "Gothenburg 1969" which is the place and the year when the club was formed. The Club organizes regular competitions in all formats and several of the club's approximately 25 members also go around and compete, both domestically and internationally. The club is home to the Gothenburg 1000 which has been run every year since 1972, and almost always on the first weekend in December. The race is for Production24, Open12 and Eurosport 24 slot cars, with entrants from Denmark, Finland , Norway, Sweden and the UK.
Wing Car racing is the focus at Norsjö MS / Miniracing which will host the 2017 European Wing Car Championship. Åtvidabegs MK Miniracing races on a large 8-lane 49.8 metre flat track with Eurosport and Production 24 slot cars, hosting the Swedish Open. MK Ran
Askersundnis is a slightly more relaxed club located in the Eastern region of Sweden. The club is involved in Folk Racing which is and entry level form of Nordic Rallycross for cars, motorcross racing for motorcycles and slot car racing. The club races slot cars on a 8-lane 44 metre flat track built in 2012.
Switzerland, for a relatively small country has a number of slot car clubs many of them with routed wood tracks of 100ft or more. They race mostly 1/32, 1/27 (MiniZ) and 1/24 scale cars.
These clubs include SlotClub.ch with their 5-lane 45.5 metre wood track, SBS Slot Racing Dottikon, founded in 1995, with their 5-lane 39 metre wood track, Slot Racing Club Ostermundigen traces its history back to 1976. In city of Basel there is the Slot Racing Club Basel (SRCB) with their 5-lane 44 metre wood track and in Adliswil near Zurich there are the Polar Slotters who have a 5-lane 37 metre wood track. Slotrennbahn Teufen in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden has a 4-lane 37 metre wood track. Highing Slotters, located in Obfelden, Southwest of Zurich has 3 tracks at their facility. A 4-lane 55 meter Ninco track, a 4-lane 22 metre Carrera track and a 4-lane 44 metre Ninco "mountain" track.
ORS a Swiss slot car distributor has two tracks and is located in Saint-Blaise which is West of Bern. They have two tracks that are open to the public, a 4-lane 63 metre SCX track and a 6-lane 40 metre wood track. Slotracing Club Mettmenstetten is home to Switzerland's 8-lane Blue King high-speed track. The club races everything from scale cars to G27 Wing Cars.
ISSR, runs the 3-Länder Cup with clubs from naturally 3 countries, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. The races involve scale GT and LMP cars. For the last 12 years clubs around the Zurich area have held a championship for 1/32 scale cars called the "Züri-Meister" Slotracing Cup. The series has 2 classes and a total of 10 races are run throughout the year.
Slot car racing in the Ukraine is similar to the racing scene in Russia which is what one would expect with a focus on racing ISRA classes. In 2013 Kiev served as the site for the ISAR World Championships. Like Russia, slot car racing is thought of as a useful tool to teach young technicians in the Ukraine and many of their clubs are geared to children both young and old.
Projects organized by the Ukrainian State Center of school education (UDPTSO), the leading institution in scientific coordination of technical, artistic and aesthetic areas of the school educational institutions involve slot and radio control racing cars. Ukrainian Model Auto Sports (UFAMS) is the National Organization that used to organize slot car racing in the Ukraine but it has shifted it's attention towards RC cars.
Prominent clubs in the Ukraine include Valico, Kiev Palace Raceway (KPDU) and The Center of Scientific and Technical Creativity (SFERA) while in 2016 a Championship of Ukraine for youth was held in Chernigov.
The Ukraine has built a solid reputation for electronics in the amateur radio hobby and S&K, a manufacturer of slot car parts including gears, controllers, tire truers and power supplies continues that trend. The company located in Kiev maintains their own club track while S&K's controllers have been especially well received. Slot Racing Ukraine is another manufacturer of slot racing parts, producing power supplies..
The United Kingdom where modern day slot cars were invented maintains a strong national racing calendar with races conducted all over the country. There is one major organization, the British Slot Car Racing Association (BSCRA) has been organizing a National Championship since 1964. The BSCRA organized five main series with multiple classes under each series. These series: British Open Championship (BOC), Southern 32, British Slotracing League (BSL), Pro Am and the British Wingcar Championship. Additionally there are two rule making groups that have created rule sets that are available free for clubs to run under and useful for inter-club events. These are the United Kingdom Retro Racing Association (UKRRA) which runs a British version of the American D3 rules as well as the Tottenham Open and the Classic Slot Car Racing Association (CSCRA) for hardbody racing in both 1/32 and 1/24 though the smaller scale is much more popular.
In 2016 The Digital Slot Car Association (DiSCA) ran two events using pop-up digital slot car racing circuits at popular UK club venues. The events were well received, and in response to the enthusiasm for our GT3 formula we are pleased to announce three dates for the forthcoming season.
One of the largest slot car retailers Pendle Slot Racing serves the British public as well as the entire slot car world with an extensive online business. Founded in 1993 by Sean Fothersgill Pendle operates out of its facility at Lomeshaye Industrial Estate, Nelson, where it also maintains a custom 115ft, 5 lane MDF track for club gatherings. In 1999 the firm launched its first website. Pendle supports various events including sponsoring the Slot.it Digital Le Mans 24hrs race held in Henley-in-Arden and the annual UK Slot Car festival. Another premier online retailer is AB Slotsport that serves an international clientele with the latest slot car equipment.
England has many famous clubs, chief amongst these is the North London Society of Model Engineers (NLSME) was founded in 1944 and where the earliest diesel rail cars, forerunners to modern day slot cars were first demonstrated. The aim in which the Society was originally founded still remains today, and that is to promote and encourage model engineering and its related pastimes.
The NLSME has an active membership that has steadily grown over the 69 years that the Society has been in existence and the society has established different sections for Locomotive, Stationary Steam & Traction Engines,
OO & O Railways,
North American HO Railroad, Marine, Video, Junior, Garden Railway and
Ground Level Railway. While the slot car section holds many races the club is still dominated by the model railroaders.
The Rockingham Slot Car Club track, a 117-foot six-lane braided wooden track with a smooth gloss painted surface is designed for BSCRA-type 1/32 - 1/24 and UKRRA Retro 1/24 racing. Race control is through the latest version of the SlotMaster race management system. Controllers are connected through the usual BSCRA 3-pin 2 amp plugs that are standard in UK slot racing clubs. Oaklands Park Model Car Club, is the oldest slot car club in England, which would make them the oldest club in the world. Raceway 81 is the new home of the Newcastle Slot Car Racing Club, originally formed in 1990. Skyline Raceway in Essex has a new 6 lane routed wood track that will allow it to run anything from 1/32 hard body cars to BSCRA 1/24 Wing Cars. Viking Scalextric and Slot Car Club in Kent was launched in 1997 and races on a 6-lane 140 foot Scalextric Sport Track where they race 1/32 hard body cars. Scalextric, a name synonymous with slot cars no longer organizes a National Championship though many clubs base their racing activities on the plastic cars and those of Pioneer. Most of these clubs racing Scalextric also run on plastic Ninco or Scalextric track. In addition to Scalextric, the Italian company NSR promotes a national championship around their GT3 cars. Interestingly Scaleauto which runs 1/24 series and Slot.it with their Group C which are raced all over the world have not made a large impact on the UK market. Liverpool is home to the Hawthorne Park Slot Car Club. The club has two wooden tracks and races mostly 1/32 scale cars. The smaller of the two is a rally track which is rare in the UK while the larger track is 4 lanes and 100 feet per lap.
They toil away in a dozen workshop in England producing replicas of cars that have not seen a racetrack except for vintage events for the last half century. These are resin body builders in the image of master "panel beaters" that includes Penelope Pitlane, Pre-Wing, and George Turner. At his workshop in Twickenham there resides a violin maker and restorer by the name of John Dilworth who when not working with his musical instruments produces vintage vac-formed bodies of 0.5mm PETG for slot car racers, but don't look for a website or online store because John does not maintain a standing inventory and most of his bodies are produced upon request. With many of his bodies not available through nay other source John provides a critical service to those that want clear but scale appearing bodies.
Handbuilt resin or wood bodied cars are raced at special events such as the Wolverhampton Slot Car Club's Early Birds Race for vintage scratchbuilt Grand Prix and Formula 1 cars. Another club that still finds the times in their busy racing schedule to race vintage slot cars is the Southend Slot Racing Club in Bowers Gifford, a small village in southern Essex where they race mostly 1/32 scale cars including Pre-67 front engine GT/Sports cars as produced by Ninco, Carrera and Revell, Early Birds (F1 and GP) and pre-1977, 4-seater European, Japanese or American saloons, which are race converted hard top passenger cars.
RETURN TO PART I